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Welcome to the Make4All Group. Our work tackles the scientific challenges that make it possible for everyday individuals and communities to create technology that improves accessibility, wellness, and sustainability. One of our primary application domains is revolutionizing the production and delivery of 3D printed assistive technology.  Our work combines computational approaches to making and human centered data analytics. We are currently looking for students (more details)

Research Projects

Our work tackles the scientific challenges that make it possible for everyday individuals and communities to create technology that improves accessibility and wellness, and sustainability. One of our primary application domains is revolutionizing the production and delivery of 3D printed assistive technology.  Our work combines computational approaches to making and data analytics. 

We are currently looking for students

Recent Projects:

Navigating AirBnb with SPRITES

Nonvisual Interaction Techniques at the Keyboard Surface

Rushil Khurana,Duncan McIsaac, Elliot Lockerman,Jennifer Mankoff Nonvisual Interaction Techniques at the Keyboard Surface, CHI 2018, To Appear Web user interfaces today leverage many common GUI design patterns, including navigation bars and menus (hierarchical structure), tabular content presentation, and scrolling. These visual-spatial cues enhance the interaction experience of sighted users. However, the linear nature of screen translation …

Picture of 3D models and a printout

Expressing and Reusing Design Intent in 3D Models

Megan K Hofmann, Gabriella Han, Scott E Hudson, Jennifer Mankoff. Greater Than the Sum of Its PARTs: Expressing and Reusing Design Intent in 3D Models CHI 2018, To Appear. With the increasing popularity of consumer-grade 3D printing, many people are creating, and even more using, objects shared on sites such as Thingiverse. However, our formative study …

The Tangible Desktop

Mark S. Baldwin, Gillian R. Hayes, Oliver L. Haimson, Jennifer Mankoff, Scott E. Hudson: The Tangible Desktop: A Multimodal Approach to Nonvisual Computing. TACCESS 10(3): 9:1-9:28 (2017) Audio-only interfaces, facilitated through text-to-speech screen reading software, have been the primary mode of computer interaction for blind and low-vision computer users for more than four decades. During this time, the advances that have made visual …

Examples of 3d printed objects that are robust to measurement uncertainty.

Uncertainty in Measurement

Kim, J., Guo, A., Yeh, T., Hudson, S. E., & Mankoff, J. (2017, June). Understanding Uncertainty in Measurement and Accommodating its Impact in 3D Modeling and Printing. In Proceedings of the 2017 Conference on Designing Interactive Systems (pp. 1067-1078). ACM. 3D printing enables everyday users to augment objects around them with personalized adaptations. There has …

Beam at the Ubicomp Conference

Making the field of computing more inclusive for people with disabilities

Lazar, J., Churchill, E. F., Grossman, T., Van der Veer, G., Palanque, P., Morris, J. S., & Mankoff, J. (2017). Making the field of computing more inclusive. Communications of the ACM, 60(3), 50-59. More accessible conferences, digital resources, and ACM SIGs will lead to greater participation by more people with disabilities. Improving conference and online material accessibility …

Volunteer AT Fabricators

Perry-Hill, J., Shi, P., Mankoff, J. & Ashbrook, D. Understanding Volunteer AT Fabricators: Opportunities and Challenges in DIY-AT for Others in e-NABLE. Accepted to CHI 2017 We present the results of a study of e-NABLE, a distributed, collaborative volunteer effort to design and fabricate upper-limb assistive technology devices for limb-different users. Informed by interviews with …

Tactile Interfaces to Appliances

Facade is a crowdsourced fabrication pipeline to automatically generate tactile interfaces to appliances for blind people.

Aversion to Typing Errors

Quantifying Aversion to Costly Typing Errors in Expert Mobile Text Entry Text entry is an increasingly important activity for mobile device users. As a result, increasing text entry speed of expert typists is an important design goal for physical and soft keyboards. Mathematical models that predict text entry speed can help with keyboard design and …

Modeling & Generating Routines

Leveraging Human Routine Models to Detect and Generate Human Behaviors An ability to detect behaviors that negatively impact people’s wellbeing and show people how they can correct those behaviors could enable technology that improves people’s lives. Existing supervised machine learning approaches to detect and generate such behaviors require lengthy and expensive data labeling by domain …

3D Printing with Embedded Textiles

Stretching the Bounds of 3D Printing with Embedded Textiles Textiles are an old and well developed technology that have many desirable characteristics. They can be easily folded, twisted, deformed, or cut; some can be stretched; many are soft. Textiles can maintain their shape when placed under tension and can even be engineered with variable stretching …


Watch-ya-doin is an innovative experienced based sampling framework for longitudinal data collection and analysis. Our system consists of a smartwatch and an android device working unobtrusively to track data. Our goal is to train on and recognize a specific activity over time. We use a simple wrist-worn accelerometer to predict eating behavior and other activities. These are inexpensive …

Shows someone placing a pen in a cap with two different types of adaptations.

Printable Adaptations

Reprise: A Design Tool for Specifying, Generating, and Customizing 3D Printable Adaptations on Everyday Objects Reprise is a tool for creating custom adaptive 3D printable designs for making it easier to manipulate everything from tools to zipper pulls. Reprise’s library is based on a survey of about 3,000 assistive technology and life hacks drawn from …

A teddy bear wearing a knit hat, scarf (with pocket) and sweater

A Knitting Machine Compiler

  Although industrial knitting machines can automatically produce a wide range of garments, they are programmed through onerous means such as pixel level image manipulation. This limits the potential for automation of knitted object design, re-use of object components, and narrows the audience able to design for these machines. Our contribution is a visual design …

Tic Tac Toe board in use

RapID — interactive RFID

RapID – A framework for fabricating low-latency interactive objects with RFID tags RFID tags can be used to add inexpensive, wireless, batteryless sensing to objects. However, quickly and accurately estimating the state of an RFID tag is difficult. In this work, we show how to achieve low-latency manipulation and movement sensing with off-the-shelf RFID tags …

Modeling Human Routines

Modeling and Understanding Human Routine Behavior Human routines are blueprints of behavior, which allow people to accomplish their purposeful repetitive tasks and activities. People express their routines through actions that they perform in the particular situations that triggered those actions. An ability to model routines and understand the situations in which they are likely to …

Image of embroidery machine head playing the Threadsteading game


In work done collaboratively with Disney Research Pittsburgh and led by Gillian Smith of Northeastern we explored a multi-player game that can be embedded into a quilting and/or embroidery machine interface. Gameplay is constrained by the fact that only a single thread of fabric can be drawn over time. Players compete to ‘scout’ over a map …

Diagram of FOCUS method for dynamic, cost-sensitive feature selection

Dynamic question ordering

In recent years, surveys have been shifting online, offering the possibility for adaptive questions, where later questions depend on responses to earlier questions. We present a general framework for dynamically ordering questions, based on previous responses, to engage respondents, improving survey completion and imputation of unknown items. Our work considers two scenarios for data collection …

3D printed attachments

Encore: 3D printed attachments What happens when you want to 3D print something that must interact with the real world? The Encore project makes it possible to 3D print objects that must attach to things in the real world. Encore provides an interface that, given an imported object and a chosen attachment method, visualizes metrics relating the goodness …

3D printed prosthetic bow holder with bow and velcro for attaching to the arm.

Helping Hands

Prosthetic limbs and assistive technology (AT) require customization and modification over time to effectively meet the needs of end users. Yet, this process is typically costly and, as a result, abandonment rates are very high. Rapid prototyping technologies such as 3D printing have begun to alleviate this issue by making it possible to inexpensively, and …

Layered Fabric Printing

A Layered Fabric 3D Printer for Soft Interactive Objects. Huaishu Peng, Jennifer Mankoff, Scott E. Hudson, James McCann. CHI ’15 Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2015. In work done collaboratively with Disney Research and led by Disney Intern Huaishu Peng (of Cornell), we have begun to explore alternative material options for …


Improving the information economy for tenants pre-lease signing.

Infant Oxygen Monitoring

Improving healthcare decision making with better workflow and information flow.

Images from a variety of projects supporting green behavior


The goal of the Stepgreen project is to leverage Internet scale technologies to create opportunities for reduced energy consumption. The original vision of the project was to leverage existing online social networks to encourage individual change. Since then the project has broadened to include a number of other ideas. We have explored the impact of …


The goal of the Stepgreen project is to leverage Internet scale technologies to create opportunities for reduced energy consumption. The original vision of the project was to leverage existing online social networks to encourage individual change. Since then the project has broadened to include a number of other ideas. We have explored the impact of demographics on …

Automatically tracking green actions

We believe that self-reporting is a limiting factor in the original vision of StepGreen.org, and this component of our research has begun to explore alternatives. For example, we showed that financial data can be used to extract footprint information [1], and in collaboration with researchers at Intel and University of Washington, we used a mobile device …

Exiting the cleanroom: On ecological validity and ubiquitous computing

Carter, Scott, Jennifer Mankoff, Scott R. Klemmer, and Tara Matthews. “Exiting the cleanroom: On ecological validity and ubiquitous computing.” Human–Computer Interaction 23, no. 1 (2008): 47-99. Over the past decade and a half, corporations and academies have invested considerable time and money in the realization of ubiquitous computing. Yet design approaches that yield ecologically valid understandings of …

News and Updates

Fostering Science Education and Positive Technology Use at Home

I have been asked in a couple of different forums about how I have gone about parenting my children with respect ot technology. What came out of that thinking lacks any formal reference to literature, but it does represent my experience. I’ve always felt that despite many potential negatives (and despite being mostly a homesteading …

2017 SIGCHI Accessibility report

The SIGCHI Accessibility group has put out its 2017 report, which anyone can comment on. I’ve also pasted the text in here. Contributors to the report: Jennifer Mankoff, Head, SIGCHI Accessibility Community, Shari Trewin, President, SIGACCESS Contact person: Jennifer Mankoff, jmankoff@cs.cmu.edu Introduction It has been two years since the SIGCHI Accessibility Community first published a …

Summit Success!

On Tuesday and Wednesday of this week we ran a 3D printing summit which focused on the intersection of computer science and additive manufacturing. We had an outstanding lineup of speakers who explored topics ranging from the challenges faced by users in understanding tasks both simple and complex to the applications of optimization and machine learning to design …


University Teaching

Interactive Data Science

Assistive Technology

Computer Science for Social Good

Rapid Fabrication / Prototyping

Required Readings (videos for these and others found below) Mueller, S., Im, S., Gurevich, S., Teibrich, A., Pfisterer, L., Guimbretière, F., & Baudisch, P. (2014, October). WirePrint: 3D printed previews for fast prototyping. In Proceedings of the 27th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology (pp. 273-280). ACM. Interactive design space exploration and …


Pick one to read (or read both!) Ion, A., Frohnhofen, J., Wall, L., Kovacs, R., Alistar, M., Lindsay, J., … & Baudisch, P. (2016, October). Metamaterial mechanisms. In Proceedings of the 29th Annual Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (pp. 529-539). ACM. Ion, A., Wall, L., Kovacs, R., & Baudisch, P. (2017, May). Digital …

Middle School Curricula

Receipt Printing Robot

This document is based on a draft curriculum to be used for the 2016 Fall Tech Club (at the Waldorf School of Pittsburgh). During this club, students will work together to create a robot that can print quotes out using a receipt printer when a button is pressed, and blink its eyes. Learning Goals; Materials needed; Setup; Curricular …



Jennifer Mankoff

Research | Students | Teaching | Bio | CV | Advice | Fun | Contact Research My work tackles the technical challenges necessary for everyday individuals and communities to solve real-world problems in domains such as accessibility, health, and sustainability (see all the Make4all projects).  My focus is on computational approaches to fabrication and data analytics. I am currently looking for students interested in working on mobile device (phone/watch) sensing …

Nikola Banovic

I am a PhD student working on developing new models of human routine behaviors that will inform the design and support smart agents that help people develop good routines. My most current projects include helping aggressive drivers improve their driving routine to become less aggressive, and helping students develop routines that help them balance their …

Megan Hofmann

Megan Hofmann is an HCII PhD student working with Jennifer Mankoff and Scott Hudson. P Her research focuses on the intersection of rapid prototyping technology and assistive technology. She is currently working on the DIY Assistive Technology project. She is developing tools that support novice designers and assistive technology users when creating customized devices. The goal …

Picture of Woosux

Woosuk Seo

Woosuk Seo I am a Research Assistant in Computer Science and Engineering. I earned my Bachelor’s degree in Informatics at University of Washington. My research goal is to understand the users and to provide them proper information through human-centered design. I aim to empower those people who are often marginalized from mainstream technology. More specifically, …

Jasper O’Leary

Jasper O’Leary I am a PhD student in Human Centered Design and Engineering (HCDE). Previously, I earned my bachelor’s degree in Computer Science from the University of California, Berkeley. I study how digital fabrication technology can move beyond its focus on making trinket-scale objects for a universal “maker.” Instead, I imagine how we can leverage …


Picture of Tracy

Tracy Tran

Tracy Tran Hi there! I’m a CSE senior passionate about creating physical, interactive things to solve human problems. In the lab I am currently working on Interactiles, which improves the accessibility of mobile phones by introducing tangible, tactile interaction to touchscreens, and Don’t Touch My Belly, a maternity shirt that reacts when the wearer’s pregnant …

Picture of Ying

Ying Wang

Ying Wang My name is Ying Wang and I am a junior double majoring in Computer Science and Applied & Computational Mathematical Science. I am interested in the communication between Nature, Human and Technology. She is fascinated by the unlimited potential and profound meaning revealed by data communication and how human-centered design plays an essential …

Sabrina Pearson

Sabrina Pearson I’m a freshman majoring in Computer Science, from Kirkland Washington. In the lab, I am currently working on the Don’t Touch My Belly project, a fabrication project that aims to explore themes of consent, consisting of a maturity shirt that reacts the wearer’s pregnant belly is touched without asking. I am still exploring …

Nicole Riley

Nicole Riley I am a computer science major from Bellevue, Washington. I am a post-baccalaureate student in CSE (I already have a degree in neurobiology and psychology from UW so I am happy to talk about brains as well as tech). In the Allen School I am the treasurer of ACM-W, a CSE Student Advisory …

Picture of Estelle

Estelle Jiang

Estelle Jiang Hi, there! My name is Estelle Jiang and I’m currently a junior at the University of Washington majoring in Informatics, with a concentration in Human Computer Interaction. I’m passionate about exploring & creating the best experience for the user and designing sustainably and meaningful interactions between people, technology, and products. I think design …

Picture of Alex

Alex McGregor

Alex McGregor I am a freshman majoring in Computer Science from Spokane, Washington. In the Make4All lab, I have been working on learning how to write programs using Python in the 3D modeling software Fusion 360. One of my biggest passions is 3D printing, so learning more about the modeling side of that has been …

Picture of Yuqian

Yuqian Sun

Yuqian Sun Hi, I’m Yuqian Sun and I’m an exchange student from University of Tokyo, Japan. I’m interested in how technology can combine with the human cognition, persuade and as a result, change human behavior. My research field is human computer interaction and Ubiquitous Computing. I’m currently working on SPRITEs and Interactiles project.


Lindsay Zadunayski (REU Summer 2017)

I am a junior at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute planning to graduate in May 2019.  I am pursuing a dual major in Computer Science and Mathematics in the School of Science.  This summer I am participating in CRA-W’s Distributed Research Experience for Undergraduates (DREU). You can contact me at zadunl@rpi.edu This summer I am working with …



Christian Koehler (PhD)

Samsung (co-advised with Anind Dey)

Julia Schwarz

Julia Schwarz (PhD)

Qeexo, Microsoft (co-advised with Scott Hudson)

Sunyoung Kim

Sunyoung Kim (PhD)

Harvard post doc (co-advised with Eric Paulos)

Tawanna Dillahunt

Tawanna Dillahunt (PhD)

University of Michigan

Amy Hurst

Amy Hurst (PhD)

UMBC (co-advised with Scott Hudson)

Scott Carter

Scott Carter (PhD)

FX Pal

Tara Matthews

Tara Matthews (PhD)


Michael Terry (Post Doc)

Taylor Raack (Masters)

Masters Project, CMU VLIS, Stepgreen NILM support 2011-12

Marty McGuire (Masters)

Masters Project, CMU VLIS, Stepgreen Social Website 2007-08

Miriam Walker (Masters)

2003 MS Thesis “High-Fidelity or Low-fidelity, paper or computer? Choosing attributes when testing web prototypes,” UC Berkeley, Masters Report, 2003

Lauren Chapman (Masters)

MS in Design, Spring 2011, co-advised with Suguru Ishizaki: “Design for Chronic Illness: Exploring service systems & new technologies for patients with type 2 diabetes.”

Catherine Grevet (Undergraduate)

Undergraduate Honors Thesis, 2009: “Motivating Community-Oriented Behavior through an Online Social visualization,” Wellesley College.

PhD student at Georgia Tech

Devin BLais (Undergraduate)

Undergraduate Honors Thesis, 2009: “Green Facebook Applications: A competitive Analysis,” Carnegie Mellon University.

Ana Ramirez (Masters)

2005 MS Thesis “Designing systems that direct human action.” UC Berkeley, co-advised with Mark Davis, SIMS; NSF Fellowship

Scott Lederer (Masters)

MS, Fall 2003, co-advised with Anind Dey: “Designing disclosure: Interactive personal privacy at the dawn of ubiquitous computing.”

Holly Fait (Masters)

2003 MS Thesis “Simulation of user interaction experiences to improve evaluation for accessibility.”

Wai-Ling Ho-Ching (Masters)

MS, Fall 2003, co-advised with James Landy: “Can you see what I hear? The design and evaluation of a peripheral sound display for the deaf.”

Ruth Wylie (Undergraduate)

Undergraduate Honors Thesis, 2003 “The Effects of Computers on Cognitive Assessment,” UC Berkeley.

PhD at CMU; currently faculty at ASU (next position)