Research Projects

Accessibility

 fabrication | inclusion | sustainability | all

One in 5 Americans has a disability, and the needs of people with disabilities are extremely heterogeneous. Yet accessibility is not a given, and assistive technology today is mostly homogenous and very expensive. Our group is focused on the scientific challenges that can address accessibility across a broad range of domains. A major focus of this work is creating general tools so that anyone can use tools such as 3D printing, knitting and other fabrication technologies.

Sampler of PPE found on the NIH repository

Medical Making During COVID

The onset of COVID-19 led many makers to dive deeply into the potential applications of their work to help with the pandemic. Our group’s efforts on this front, all of which were collaborations with a variety of people from multiple universities, led me to this reflective talk about the additional work that is needed for … Continue reading Medical Making During COVID

(Left) Users can select accessibility qualities to filter the places shown on the map. (Right) Clicking on a place opens a popup window to see all of that place's coded accessibility qualities, pictures, reviews, and additional textual descriptions.

Navigating Illness, Finding Place

Sylvia Janicki, Matt Ziegler, Jennifer Mankoff:Navigating Illness, Finding Place: Enhancing the Experience of Place for People Living with Chronic Illness. COMPASS 2021: 173-187 When chronic illness, such as Lyme disease, is viewed through a disability lens, equitable access to public spaces becomes an important area for consideration. Yet chronic illness is often viewed solely through an individualistic, medical model lens. … Continue reading Navigating Illness, Finding Place

BLV Understanding of Visual Semantics

Venkatesh Potluri, Tadashi E. Grindeland, Jon E. Froehlich, Jennifer Mankoff: Examining Visual Semantic Understanding in Blind and Low-Vision Technology Users. CHI 2021: 35:1-35:14 Visual semantics provide spatial information like size, shape, and position, which are necessary to understand and efficiently use interfaces and documents. Yet little is known about whether blind and low-vision (BLV) technology users want to interact with visual … Continue reading BLV Understanding of Visual Semantics

Understanding Disabled Knitters

Taylor Gotfrid, Kelly Mack, Kathryn J. Lum, Evelyn Yang, Jessica K. Hodgins, Scott E. Hudson, Jennifer Mankoff: Stitching Together the Experiences of Disabled Knitters. CHI 2021: 488:1-488:14 Knitting is a popular craft that can be used to create customized fabric objects such as household items, clothing and toys. Additionally, many knitters find knitting to be a relaxing and calming exercise. Little is known about … Continue reading Understanding Disabled Knitters

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Fabrication

accessibility | inclusion | sustainability | all

President Obama once said ‘3D printing […] has the potential to revolutionize the way we make almost everything” [Obama 2013].’ One might say that computers have the same ability. Together, computational advances and fabrication can revolutionize personal problem solving, particularly with respect to accessibility. 

Our group is embarking on an effort to enhance fabrication technology, both through the use of new and better materials and in its ease of program. Much of our effort here is on embedding standard programming capabilities such as testability, modularity, iterability, and version control into the design and fabrication process.

A picture of a knit lampshade in blue and green surrounding a lit lamp on an orange table.

KnitGIST: Generative Texture Design

Hofmann, M., Mankoff, J., & Hudson, S. E. (2020, October). KnitGIST: A Programming Synthesis Toolkit for Generating Functional Machine-Knitting Textures. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology (pp. 1234-1247). Automatic knitting machines are robust, digital fabrication devices that enable rapid and reliable production of attractive, functional objects by combining stitches … Continue reading KnitGIST: Generative Texture Design

KnitPick: Manipulating Texture

Knitting creates complex, soft objects with unique and controllable texture properties that can be used to create interactive objects. However, little work addresses the challenges of using knitted textures. We present KnitPick: a pipeline for interpreting pre-existing hand-knitting texture patterns into a directed-graph representation of knittable structures (KnitGraphs) which can be output to machine and … Continue reading KnitPick: Manipulating Texture

Splint that has been 3D printed in a material of an appropriate skin color and fit to a client's hand.

“Occupational Therapy is Making”

 “Occupational Therapy is Making’”: Design Iteration and Digital Fabrication in Occupational Therapy   Consumer-fabrication technologies potentially improve the effectiveness and adoption of assistive technology (AT) by engaging AT users in AT creation. However, little is known about the role of clinicians in this revolution. We investigate clinical AT fabrication by working as expert fabricators for … Continue reading “Occupational Therapy is Making”

Picture of a 3D printed arm with backscatter sensing technology attached to it.

3D Printed Wireless Analytics

Wireless Analytics for 3D Printed Objects: Vikram Iyer, Justin Chan, Ian Culhane, Jennifer Mankoff, Shyam Gollakota UIST, Oct. 2018 [PDF] We created a wireless physical analytics system works with commonly available conductive plastic filaments. Our design can enable various data capture and wireless physical analytics capabilities for 3D printed objects, without the need for electronics. We … Continue reading 3D Printed Wireless Analytics

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Inclusion

accessibility | fabrication | sustainability | all
Our group also works to address inclusion of other under represented groups. Our particular focus currently is the UW Experience Study which is looking at experiences that differentially impact under represented groups among undergraduates at the University of Washington. Other recent work has looked at gender in academia and other settings.

Gender in Online Doctor Reviews

Dunivin Z, Zadunayski L, Baskota U, Siek K, Mankoff J. Gender, Soft Skills, and Patient Experience in Online Physician Reviews: A Large-Scale Text Analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2020;22(7):e14455. This study examines 154,305 Google reviews from across the United States for all medical specialties. Many patients use online physician reviews but we need to … Continue reading Gender in Online Doctor Reviews

Passively-sensing Discrimination

See the UW News article featuring this study! A deeper understanding of how discrimination impacts psychological health and well-being of students would allow us to better protect individuals at risk and support those who encounter discrimination. While the link between discrimination and diminished psychological and physical well-being is well established, existing research largely focuses on … Continue reading Passively-sensing Discrimination

Picture of potted plants and a bench with the word Africatown in the background, painted in bright red and green colors

Who Gets to Future?

Who Gets to Future? Race, Representation, and Design Methods in Africatown Jasper Tran O’Leary, Sara Zewde, Jennifer Mankoff , Daniela K. Rosner CHI 2019 This paper draws on a collaborative project called the Africatown Activation to examine the role design practices play in contributing to (or conspiring against) the flourishing of the Black community in … Continue reading Who Gets to Future?

Understanding gender equity in author order assignment

Academic success and promotion are heavily influenced by publication record. In many fields, including computer science, multi-author papers are the norm. Evidence from other fields shows that norms for ordering author names can influence the assignment of credit. We interviewed 38 students and faculty in human- computer interaction (HCI) and machine learning (ML) at two … Continue reading Understanding gender equity in author order assignment

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Sustainability

accessibility | fabrication | inclusion | all

Sustainability, and relatedly environmental justice, are issues that intersects with all of the other focii in our group.  In addition, they are issues that require engagement by computer scientists. In the past, our group has tackled sustainability from an intersectional perspective, exploring how energy use plays out in a variety of communities from low-income settings in the U.S. to urban middle-class families in India. This in turn has led to new research in landlord-tenant relationships and ultimately to work aimed at changing the information economy prior to lease signing.

EDigs

Improving the information economy for tenants pre-lease signing.

Images from a variety of projects supporting green behavior

StepGreen

The goal of the Stepgreen project is to leverage Internet scale technologies to create opportunities for reduced energy consumption. The original vision of the project was to leverage existing online social networks to encourage individual change. Since then the project has broadened to include a number of other ideas. We have explored the impact of … Continue reading StepGreen

Stepgreen.org

The goal of the Stepgreen project is to leverage Internet scale technologies to create opportunities for reduced energy consumption. The original vision of the project was to leverage existing online social networks to encourage individual change. Since then the project has broadened to include a number of other ideas. We have explored the impact of demographics on … Continue reading Stepgreen.org

Automatically tracking green actions

We believe that self-reporting is a limiting factor in the original vision of StepGreen.org, and this component of our research has begun to explore alternatives. For example, we showed that financial data can be used to extract footprint information [1], and in collaboration with researchers at Intel and University of Washington, we used a mobile device … Continue reading Automatically tracking green actions

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All recent publications

Return to top: accessibility|health|fabrication|inclusion|data science|all

Sampler of PPE found on the NIH repository

Medical Making During COVID

(Left) Users can select accessibility qualities to filter the places shown on the map. (Right) Clicking on a place opens a popup window to see all of that place's coded accessibility qualities, pictures, reviews, and additional textual descriptions.

Navigating Illness, Finding Place

BLV Understanding of Visual Semantics

A user is tapping on their cheek. The tapping is sensed by a microphone in the earphone.

Interaction via Wireless Earbuds

HulaMove: Waist Interaction

Understanding Disabled Knitters

A picture of a knit lampshade in blue and green surrounding a lit lamp on an orange table.

KnitGIST: Generative Texture Design

Shows barchart of import of different features onetecting change in depression

Detecting Depression △

Gender in Online Doctor Reviews

A picture of Megan in her wedding dress leaning on her cane with a river and skyscrapers in the background. A second picture shows her partner working on the cane while wearing a mask and a faceshield for protection.

Living Disability Theory

Detecting Loneliness

The Limits of Expert Text Entry Speed

KnitPick: Manipulating Texture

Passively-sensing Discrimination

A venn diagram showing the domains of expertise of those we interviewed including people from hospitals, universities, non-profits, va networks, private practices, and government. We interviewed clinicians and facilitators in each of these domains and there was a great deal of overlap with participants falling into multiple categories. For example, one participant was in a VA network and in private practice, while another was at a university and also a non-profit.

Digital Fabrication in Medical Practice

A Makapo paddler in a one-person outrigger canoe (OC1) with the final version of CoOP attached.

Designing in the Public Square

Clench Interaction: Biting As Input

Picture of potted plants and a bench with the word Africatown in the background, painted in bright red and green colors

Who Gets to Future?

Splint that has been 3D printed in a material of an appropriate skin color and fit to a client's hand.

“Occupational Therapy is Making”

Lyme Disease’s Heterogeneous Impact

Understanding gender equity in author order assignment

Picture of a 3D printed arm with backscatter sensing technology attached to it.

3D Printed Wireless Analytics

Interactiles

EDigs

Nonvisual Interaction Techniques at the Keyboard Surface

Picture of 3D models and a printout

Expressing and Reusing Design Intent in 3D Models

Hypertension recognition through overnight Heart Rate Variability sensing

The Tangible Desktop

Examples of 3d printed objects that are robust to measurement uncertainty.

Uncertainty in Measurement

Making the field of computing more inclusive for people with disabilities

Volunteer AT Fabricators

Tactile Interfaces to Appliances

Aversion to Typing Errors

Modeling & Generating Routines

3D Printing with Embedded Textiles

Watch-ya-doin

Shows someone placing a pen in a cap with two different types of adaptations.

Printable Adaptations

A teddy bear wearing a knit hat, scarf (with pocket) and sweater

A Knitting Machine Compiler

Sketchup Interface with plugin for RapID being used to create a Tic Tac Toe board.

RapID — interactive RFID

Modeling Human Routines

Threadsteading

Diagram of FOCUS method for dynamic, cost-sensitive feature selection

Dynamic question ordering

3D printed attachments

Helping Hands

Supporting Navigation in the Wild for the Blind

Layered Fabric Printing

Infant Oxygen Monitoring

3D Printed Prosthetics: Case Study

Images from a variety of projects supporting green behavior

StepGreen

Severity of Chronic Lyme Disease

Stepgreen.org

Automatically tracking green actions

Competing Online Viewpoints and Models of Chronic Illness

Disability Studies and Accessible Technology Creation

Exiting the cleanroom: On ecological validity and ubiquitous computing

Jennifer Mankoff | University of Washington